Условные предложения в английском языке. Упражнения

аниме

Exercise 1. Раскрывая скобки, напишите каждое предложе­ние три раза, образуя условные предложения I, II и III типов.

Например.   If you (to be) free, I (to come) to see you.

If you are free, I shall come to see you.

If you were free, I should come to see you.

If you had been free, I should have come to see you.

 

If I (to see) her, I (to be) glad.

If I see her, I shall be glad.

If I saw her, I should be glad.

If I had seen her, I should have been glad.

1. If you (to be) busy, I (to leave) you alone. 2. If my friend (to come) to see me, I (to be) very glad. 3. If mother (to buy) a cake, we (to have) a very nice tea party. 4. If we (to receive) a telegram from him, we (not to worry). 5. If you (not to work) systemat­ically, you (to fail) the exam. 6. If I (to live) in Mos­cow, I (to visit) the Tretyakov Gallery every year. 7. If I (to get) a ticket, I (to go) to the Philharmon­ic. 8. If I (to live) near a wood, I (to gather) a lot of mushrooms. 9. If my father (to return) early, we (to watch) TV together. 10. If she (to know) English, she (to try) to enter the university.

Answers: 1. 1)If you are busy, I shall leave you alone. 2) If you were busy, I should leave you alone. 3)If you had been busy, I should have left you alone. 2. 1) If my friend comes to see me, I shall be very glad. — Если друг придет, я буду рад. 2) If my friend came to see me, I should be very glad. — Если бы друг пришёл, я был бы рад. (мечта) 3) If my friend had come to see me, I should have been very glad. — Если бы друг пришёл (но он не пришел), я был бы рад. (сожаление) 3. 1) If mother buys a cake, we shall have a very nice tea party. 2) If mother bought a cake, we should have a very nice tea party. 3) If mother had bought a cake, we should have had a very nice tea party.  4. 1) If we receive a telegram from him, we shall not worry. 2) If we received a telegram from him, we should not worry. 3)If we had received a telegram from him, we should not have worried. 5. 1)If you don’t work systematically, you will fail the exam. 2) If you did not work systematically, you would fail the exam. 3)If you had not worked systematically, you would have failed the exam.  6. 1)If I live in Moscow, I shall visit the Tretyakov Gallery every year. 2) If I lived in Moscow, I should visit the Tretyakov Gallery every year. 3) If I had lived in Moscow, I should have visited the Tretyakov Gallery every year. 7. 1) If I get a ticket, I shall go to the Philharmonic. 2) If I got a ticket, I should go to the Philharmonic. 3) If I had got a ticket, I should have gone to the Philharmonic. 8. 1) If I live near a wood, I shall gather a lot of mushrooms. 2) If I lived near a wood, I should gather a lot of mushrooms. 3) If I had lived near a wood, I should have gathered a lot of mushrooms. 9. 1) If my father returns early, we shall watch TV together. 2) If my father returned early, we should watch TV together. 3) If my father had returned early, we should have watched TV together. 10. 1) If she knows English, she will try to enter the university. 2) If she knew English, she would try to enter the university. 3) If she had known English, she would have tried to enter the university.

Exercise 2. Перепишите каждое из следующих предложений дважды, образуя предложения нереального условия: a)   относящиеся к настоящему или будущему (II тип); b)  относящиеся к прошедшему (III тип).

аниме

1. If I am not too busy, I shall go to the concert. 2. They will all be surprised if I make such a mis­take. 3. If he doesn’t come in time, shall we have to wait for him? 4. If no one comes to help, we shall be . obliged to do the work ourselves. 5. If you put on your glasses, you will see better. 6. What shall we do if they are late? 7. Will you be very angry if we don’t come? 8. Will he be very displeased if I don’t ring him up?

Answers: 1. 1)I were not too busy, I should go to the concert.2) If I had not been too busy, I should have gone to the concert. 2. 1) They would all be surprised if I made such a mistake. 2)They would all have been very surprised if I had made such a mistake. 3. 1)If he didn’t come in time, should we have to wait for him?  2) If he hadn’t come in time, should we have had to wait for him? 4. 1) If no one came to help, we should be obliged to do the work ourselves.  2) If no one had come to help, we should have been obliged to do the work ourselves. 5. 1)If you put on your glasses, you would see better. 2)f you had put on your glasses, you would have seen better. 6. 1)What should we do if they were late? 2) What should we have done if they had been late? 7. 1)Would you be very angry if we didn’t come? 2) Would you have been very angry if we hadn’t come? 8. 1)Would he be very displeased if I didn’t ring him up? 2) Would he have been very displeased if I hadn’t rung him up?

Exercise 3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требу­ющейся форме.

аниме

1. If he were not such an outstanding actor, he (not to have) so many admirers. 2. If you (to give) me your address, I shall write you a letter. 3. If she (not to be) so absent-minded, she would be a much better student. 4. If my sister does not go to the south, we (to spend) the summer in St. Petersburg together. 5. If they (not to go) to Moscow last year, they would not have heard that famous musician. 6. If you (not to get) tickets for the Philharmonic, we shall stay at home. 7. If you were not so care­less about your health, you (to consult) the doctor. 8. I should be delighted if I (to have) such a beautiful fur coat. 9. If it (to rain), we shall have to stay at home.  10. If he (to work) hard, he would have achieved great progress. 11. If it is not too cold, I (not to put) on my coat. 12. I (to write) the compo­sition long ago if you had not disturbed me. 13. If he (not to read) so much, he would not be so clever. 14. If my friend (to be) at home, he will tell us what to do.

Answers: 1. He would not have. 2. You give. 3. She were not. 4. We shall spend. 5. They had not gone. 6. You don’t get. 7. You would consult. 8. I had. 9. It rains. 10. He had worked. 11. I shall not put. 12. I should have written. 13. He did not read. 14. My friend is.

Exercise 4. Образуйте условные предложения.

аниме

1. Не is busy and does not come to see us. If … 2. The girl did not study well last year and received bad marks. If … 3. He broke his bicycle and so he did not go to the country. If … 4. He speaks En­glish badly: he has no practice. If … 5. I had a bad headache yesterday, that’s why I did not come to see you. If … 6. The ship was sailing near the coast, that’s why it struck a rock. If … 7. He was not in town, therefore he was not present at our meeting. If … 8. The pavement was so slippery that I fell and hurt my leg. If … 9. The sea is rough, and we can­not sail to the island. If … 10. They made a fire, and the frightened wolves ran away. If … 11. It is late, and I have to go home. If … 12. I was expect­ing my friend to come, that’s why I could not go to the cinema with you. If … 13. He always gets top marks in mathematics because it is his favourite subject and he works a lot at it. If … 14. I did not translate the article yesterday because I had no dic­tionary. If … 15. We lost our way because the night was pitch-dark. If … 16. The box was so heavy that I could not carry it. That’s why I took a taxi. If …

Answers: 1. If  he were not busy, he would come to see us.  2. If the girl had studied well last year, she would not have received bad marks.  3. If he had not broken his bicycle, he would have gone to the country.  4. If he had (more) practice, he would speak English better.  5. If I had not had a bad headache yesterday, I should have come to see you.  6. If the ship had not sailed near the coast, it would not have struck a rock.  7. If he had been in town, he would have been present at our meeting.  8. If the pavement had not been so slippery, I should not have fallen and hurt my leg.  9. If the sea were not (so) rough, we should (could) sail to the island.  10. If they had not made a fire, the wolves would not have run away.  11. If it were not late, I should not have to go home.  12. If I had not expected my friend to come, I should (could) have gone to the cinema with you.  13. If mathematics were not his favourite subject and he did not work a lot at it, he would not always get top marks.  14. If I had had a dictionary, I should have translated the article yesterday.  15. If the night had not been pitch-dark, we should not have lost our way.  16. If the box had not been so heavy, (I could have carried it and) I should not have taken a taxi.

Exercise 5. Раскройте скобки, употребляя требующуюся фор­му сослагательного наклонения после «I wish».

аниме

1. I wish I (to have) a season ticket to the Phil­harmonic next winter. 2. I wish I (to consult) the teacher when I first felt that mathematics was too difficult for me. 3. I love sunny weather. I wish it (to be) warm and fine all the year round. 4. I wish I (not to lend) Nick my watch: he has broken it.5.    I wish you (to send) word as soon as you arrive. 6.    I wish I (not to have) to do my homework every day. 7. I wish you (to go) skiing with me yesterday: I had such a good time! 8. I wish I (to know) Span­ish. 9. I wish I (not to drink) so much coffee in the evening: I could not sleep half the night. 10. I wish you (to read) more in future. 11. I wish I never (to suggest) this idea. 12. I wish I (to be) at yesterday’s party: it must have been very merry. 13. I wish we (to meet) again next summer. 14. Don’t you wish you (to see) that performance before? 15. They wished they (not to see) this horrible scene again. 16. The unfortu­nate pupil wished he (not to forget) to learn the rule.

Answers: 1. I had. 2. I had consulted. 3. It were. 4. I had not lent. 5. You sent. 6. I did not have. 7. You had gone. 8. I knew. 9. I had not drunk. 10. You read. 11. I had never suggested. 12. I had been. 13. We met. 14. You had seen. 15. They did not see. 16. He had not forgotten. 

Exercise 6. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, упо­требляя «I wish».

аниме

• E.g.   It’s a pity you are ill.

I wish you were not ill.

1. Unfortunately they won’t return before Christ­mas. 2. The student was sorry he had not studied the material better and had shown such poor knowledge at the exam. 3. It’s a pity that you did not send for us last night. 4. It’s a pity you are not with us these days. 5. My friend regrets not having entered the university. 6. He was sorry not to have had enough time to finish his paper. 7. It’s a pity we shan’t be able to reach home before teatime. 8. I am sorry I made you upset by telling you this news. 9. What a pity you don’t know enough physics.

Answers: 1. I wish they returned before Christmas. 2. The student wished he had studied the material better and shown better knowledge at the exam.  3. I wish you had sent for us last night.  4. I wish you were with us these days. 5. My friend wishes he had entered the university. 6. He wished he had had enough time to finish his paper.  7. I wish we were able to reach home before teatime. 8. I wish I had not made you upset by telling you this news. 9. I wish you knew enough physics.

Exercise 7. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя «I wish».

аниме

  • 1. а) Жаль, что он такой легкомысленный,
  • б) Жаль, что он не достаточно серьезен.
  • 2. а) Я теперь жалею, что не послушал его совета,
  • б) Я теперь жалею, что последовал его совету.
  • 3. а) Жаль, что вы пришли так поздно,
  • б) Жаль, что вы не пришли пораньше.
  • 4. а) Обидно, что мы ушли до его прихода.
  • б) Обидно, что мы не дождались его прихода.
  • 5. а) К сожалению, они еще ничего не знают,
  • б)К сожалению, они уже знают об этом.

Answers: 1. a) I wish he were not so light-minded. б) I wish he were more serious. 2.  a) Now I wish I had listened to his advice (had followed his advice).  b) Now I wish I had not followed his advice. 3. a) I wish you had not come so late. б) I wish you had come earlier. 4. a) I wish we had not gone before he came. б) I wish we had waited till he came. 5. a) I wish they knew it already. b) I wish they did not know about it.

Exercise 8.  Переведите на английский язык, употребляя «I wish».

аниме

1. Ах, если бы вы сказали ей об этом в прошлое воскресенье! 2. Хорошо бы у нас сейчас были ка­никулы. 3. Если бы он пришел сегодня вечером! 4.   Мы пожалели, что не попросили его совета. 5.   Жаль, что вы отказались принять участие в пик­нике. 6. Жаль, что вас не интересует этот предмет. 7.   Мы бы хотели, чтобы вы упомянули эти факты. 8.   Жаль, что мы опоздали на поезд. 9. Жаль, что вы включили телевизор так поздно. 10. Если бы я был свободен сейчас! 11. Жаль, что и вчера у меня было мало времени. 12. Хорошо бы вы на­писали ей об этом сами. 13. Жаль, что вы не об­ратили внимания на его предупреждение. 14. Он пожалел, что бросил университет. 15. Жаль, что уже поздно идти туда. 16. Ах, если бы я пришел на вокзал вовремя! 17. Жаль, что вы не читали такую прекрасную книгу. 18. Жаль, что она де­лает так много ошибок в речи. 19. Жаль, что вы не побывали на выставке. 20. Жаль, что я узнал об этом так поздно. 21. Как жаль, что мы не зас­тали Колю дома. 22. Она сожалела, что не рас­сказала нам эту историю раньше.

Answers:  1. Oh, how I wish you had told her about it last Sunday! 2. I wish we had holidays now.  3. Oh, I wish he came tonight! 4. We wished we had asked his advice. 5. I wish you had not refused to take part in the picnic. 6. I wish you were interested in this subject. 7. We wish you mentioned these facts.  8. I wish we had not missed the train. 9. I wish you had turned on the TV earlier. 10. I wish I were free now! 11. I wish I had had more time yesterday. 12. I wish you wrote her about it yourself. 13. I wish you had paid attention to his warning. 14. He wished he had not left the university.  15. I wish it were not too late to go there. 16. Oh, how I wish I had come to the railway station on time!  17. I wish you had read this wonderful book.  18. I wish she did not make so many mistakes in her speech.  19. I wish you had visited the exhibition. 20. I wish I had learned about it earlier.  21. I wish we had found Nick at home. 22. She wished she had told us this story before.

Обратите внимание на смешанные случаи употребления времен в условных предложениях II и III типа:

If I were acquainted with this famous professor, I should have rung him up yesterday.

Условие относится к настоящему времени (II тип), а следствие — к прошедшему (III тип).

If I had written the composition yesterday, I should be free now.

Условие относится к прошедшему времени (III тип), а следствие — к настоящему (II тип).

Exercise 9.  Образуйте условные предложения. Не забудьте о смешанных случаях.

аниме

1. I shall go to the dentist because I have a tooth­ache. If … 2. He is groaning with pain now because he did not go to the dentist to have his tooth filled. If … 3. She does not go to the polyclinic because she does not need any treatment. If … 4. He will not go to see the play as he was present at the dress re­hearsal. If … 5. He went to Moscow specially to hear this famous singer because he is fond of him. If … 6. We did not go to the cafeteria to have a glass of lemonade because we were not thirsty. If … 7. She could not mend her dress herself because she had no needle. If … 8. He is not a first-class sportsman now because he did not train enough last year. If … 9. The pupils were active because they wanted to un­derstand this difficult material. If … 10. The pupils did not understand the homework because they were inattentive. If … 11. The pupils worked hard and did well in their exams. If … 12. She won’t try to enter the foreign languages department because she is not good at foreign languages. If …

Answers:  1. If I did not have a toothache, I should not go to the dentist. 2. If he had gone to the dentist to have his tooth filled, he would not be groaning with pain now. 3. If she needed some treatment, she would go to the polyclinic. 4. If he had not been present at the dress rehearsal, he would go to see the play. 5. If he were not fond of this famous singer, he would not have gone to Moscow specially to hear him. 6. If we had been thirsty, we should have gone to the cafeteria to have a glass of lemonade. 7. If she had had a needle, she would (could) have mended her dress herself. 8. If he had trained enough last year, he would be a first-class sportsman now. 9. If the pupils had not wanted to understand this difficult material, they would not have been so active. 10. If the pupils had been more attentive, they would have understood the homework. 11. If the pupils had not worked hard, they would not have done well in their exams. 12. If she were good at foreign languages, she would try to enter the foreign languages department.

Exercise 10. Переведите на английский язык.

аниме

1. Он так изменился! Если бы вы его встрети­ли, вы бы его не узнали. 2. Если бы я был на ва­шем месте, я бы посоветовался с родителями. 3. Если бы сейчас подошел трамвай, мы бы не опоздали. 4. Если бы он знал, что это вас расстро­ит, он был бы осторожнее. 5. Если бы вы мне по­могли решить эту задачу, я был бы вам очень бла­годарен. 6. Жаль, что нам раньше не пришло в го­лову поискать книгу в библиотеке. Мы бы сдела­ли работу вовремя и сейчас были бы уже свобод­ны. 7. Жаль, что у нас было так мало уроков. Если бы мы больше поработали, мы бы лучше знали язык. 8. Если бы он регулярно не посещал спор­тивные тренировки, он не добился бы такого успе­ха на состязаниях. 9. Если бы ты предупредил меня заранее, я бы уже был в Москве. 10. Жаль, что она уже ушла. Если бы ты позвонил раньше, она была бы сейчас здесь. 11. Если бы он был ум­нее, он бы не пошел вчера в лес. 12. Если бы она не прислала вчера это письмо, мой брат был бы сейчас дома. 13. Что бы мы сейчас делали, если бы мама не испекла вчера пирог? 14. Жаль, что вы не слышали музыку Рахманинова. Если бы вы ее слышали, вы бы знали, какой это замечатель­ный композитор. 15. Я уверен, что все были бы рады, если бы вечер состоялся.

Answers:  1. He has changed so much! If you met him, you would not recognize him. 2. If I were you, I should consult my parents. 3. If a tram came now, we should not be late. 4. If he had known that this would upset you, he would have been more careful. 5. If you helped me to solve this problem, I should be very grateful to you. 6. I wish it had occurred to us before to look for the book in the library. We should have done the work in time and now we should be free, 7. I wish we had had more lessons. If we had worked more, we should know the language better. 8. If he had not attended sports trainings regularly, he would not have achieved such success in the competitions. 9. If you had warned me before, I should already be in Moscow. 10. I wish she had not gone. If you had called before, she would be here now. 11. If he were cleverer, he would not have gone to the wood yesterday. 12. If she had not sent this letter yesterday, my brother would be at home now. 13. What should we be doing now if mother had not baked a pie yesterday? 14. I wish you had heard Rakhmaninov’s music. If you had heard it, you would know what a wonderful composer he was. 15. I am sure that everybody would be glad if the party took place.

аниме

WELL DONE!

Литература:

  1. Голицынский Ю.Б. Грамматика: Сборник упражнений. — 5-е изд., — СПб: КАРО, 2005. — 544 с. — (Английский язык для школьников).

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